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  • The Kitchen Chemistry Sessions

    Post #1 - July 2nd, 2009, 4:42 pm
    Post #1 - July 2nd, 2009, 4:42 pm Post #1 - July 2nd, 2009, 4:42 pm
    The Kitchen Chemistry Sessions
    Fall 2009 09-109 (Mini-1) and 09-209 (Mini-2)
    Dept. of Chemistry, Carnegie Mellon University



    Greetings Dear LTHers!
    I write this to obtain your comments and suggestions as I develop a course to be offered in Fall 2009 (start date for Mini-1: Aug 24th; start date for Mini-2: (likely) Oct 20]

    First a little background:
    I proposed this course to my department, college and university in December 2008 and it was approved through the various levels of the university in January and is to be offered in Fall 2009.

    Target audience: all majors. The course is intended to engage all students in the excitement of chemistry and biochemistry as applied to a topic of interest to all: food. The courses will be piloted in the fall 2009. A second course number was proposed so as to address the different needs of students with a stronger science background. 09-109 will be taught the first mini and 09-209 the second mini of the fall semester. [a mini course spans half the semester (7weeks)]
    Prerequisites: 09-109: none; intended primarily for non-science or non-engineering majors and first-year students.
    09-209: 09-217, Organic I or 09-219, Modern Organic I, as a pre or co-requisite.

    A few flyers went up on campus in April (just before registration for Fall opened):

    Image
    -----------------------------

    About the course

    I am developing two chemistry courses, Kitchen Chemistry Sessions, in order to highlight how scientific principles permeate students’ everyday life and to enhance students’ knowledge of chemistry and the scientific method. In particular, I'm working to generate a series of demonstrations and laboratory/kitchen experiments that culminate with students applying chemistry and biochemistry to adapt and develop novel recipes and food presentations. The first course for non-science majors draws on the accessibility of cooking to introduce and organize chemical principles and experimental methods of scientific inquiry, while the second course for science majors employs a cooking focus to reinforce, re-organize, and extend students’ knowledge of chemistry and biochemistry


    (and from my ‘pitch’ to get the course approved that I wrote up sometime ago):
    The course is a lecture/demonstration course with a "laboratory" (kitchen) component. The course covers aspects of chemistry and biochemistry that relate to food and cooking techniques. The lecture and demonstrations will provide a strong and specific context to understand scientific concepts, principles and methods. Some of these are concepts such as pH, hydrophobicity, polarity, stoichiometry, etc. These topics are covered in general chemistry courses while others, such as amino-acid side chains, linear and branched polymers, mono- and di-valent metal ions and chelation, functional groups (carboxylic acid, hydroxyl), are typically covered in higher level courses that are typically outside the range of coursework for non-science majors. The course will also include a group laboratory/kitchen portion that will provide an opportunity for students to examine and perform experiments with the ingredients to get hands-on experience with preparing the "food".
    The laboratory/kitchen portion of the course will highlight scientific methods and the importance of maintaining a notebook with sufficient detail for reproducibility of experiments, which will be especially important for non-science majors. Thus the differences between recipes and scientific 'protocols' can be highlighted. Working in groups will develop teamwork skills and promote idea exchanges between students from diverse backgrounds. Some 'experiments' will be designed such that each group (of three) students are doing something slightly differently. At the end of the session – all groups will get to partake and evaluate for themselves the results of the experiments. In this way differences between specific ingredients and/or methods can be highlighted.

    -----------------------------

    More about the course (LTH version and why I'm posting here)

    I think food would be a fun context to teach and reinforce in students basic and not so basic concepts of chemistry and biochemistry. The course has lecture-demo and lab/kitchen components. Students - 15 per class - will be divided into 5 groups of three for the lab portion.
    Mainly I want to use high-impact demonstrations and laboratory 'experiments' to encourage students to think about the chemistry and science – with food providing a sometimes edible, but always tangible context.

    The course is still in the developmental stage – i.e., I am still deciding on the specific content and lecture material as well as lab 'experiments'. I post about this here because as foodlovers you all have plenty to bring to the table :) – I've certainly learnt a lot and gotten many ideas here - and so I hope to get your feedback, comments and suggestions on this project.
    I am not a food scientist and the course is not a food-science course (those typically require prior chemistry knowledge). So I would greatly appreciate your comments on what you might like to learn in a course such as the one I'm proposing. As well if you could suggest (based on your knowledge of food and preparations) possible 'experiments' or interesting food preps that you think would be fun to learn the science behind, then based on feasibility, appropriateness and connection with the rest of the material I will endeavor to include them. Please post your replies hre, pm me or send me an email (at address in signature below)


    In exchange, I plan to post here the course materials – background and resources and experiments as they develop and after development. I cannot promise that I will post all materials but I'll try and post as much as I can. One of my goals in designing this course is to use materials and resources that is easily assessable to most people. As much as possible I'll try to source items from vendors that others can also use (and indicate pricing). I do not have much funding myself for this. What small grants (<$1000) I got for this 'pilot' project I am using for references books, equipment and supplies for experiments both at the testing stage (and during the class itself) – this includes bowls, whisks etc. Of course I do have access to some things (dry ice liq. nitrogen that may not be that easily available to others – however, use of these items is minimal (actually, currently I have no plans to actually use these two items).
    My hope is to create a resource that can be used by anyone to make food fun and science fun to learn.
    The class itself I hope to be able to teach in a non-traditional setting (as Chemistry classes go) and do it in a cafeteria or kitchen setting. A chemistry lab is inappropriate as I plan to use do the ‘experiments’ with food ingredients and plan to eat (most of) them.

    Below, I am posting some initial references as well as greater detail about the 'sessions'

    I look forward to your comments and suggestions.


    Sincerely,

    Subha Ranjan Das

    Assistant Professor
    Department of Chemistry
    Carnegie Mellon University
    4400 Fifth Avenue
    Pittsburgh, PA 15213
    Tel: 412-268-6871
    Fax: 412-268-1061

    http://www.chem.cmu.edu/groups/das/

    Profile and Q & A

    --------------------------------------

    Note to moderators and LTHers: I post this here as I hope to engage a greater readership as well as to post hopefully useful resources. However, if this post is more appropriate in the professional forum, please move it (or let me know and I will move it). Thank you.
    Last edited by sazerac on July 3rd, 2009, 6:11 am, edited 2 times in total.
  • Post #2 - July 2nd, 2009, 4:43 pm
    Post #2 - July 2nd, 2009, 4:43 pm Post #2 - July 2nd, 2009, 4:43 pm
    The Kitchen Chemistry Sessions
    References

    The course title is obviously a tribute to Chef Charlie Trotter.

    The idea for this course has been with me for a while – the germ for the idea came nearly a decade ago when I read Peter Barham's "The Science of Cooking" and Harold McGee's "On Food and Cooking". annd watching Alton Brown's Good Eats (with insights from Shirley Corriher)
    More recently Robert Wolke's "What Einstein told his cook" as well as Hervé This's books (and articles) and Martin Lersch's blog - Khymos

    Listed below are some references that I am using. It is an incomplete list as there have been many other books, online articles and blogs that have had some influence. The major references and especially those that would be useful are listed below. Specific references for experiments and demos are (or will be) included as appropriate in the relevant 'session'.


    Title: On Food and Cooking: The Science and Lore of the Kitchen
    Author: Harold McGee
    Publisher: Scribner; Rev Upd edition (November 16, 2004)
    ISBN-13: 978-0684800011

    Title: The Science of Cooking
    Author: Peter Barham.
    Publisher: Springer; 1 edition (June 8, 2001)
    ISBN-13: 978-3540674665

    Title: Kitchen Mysteries: Revealing the Science of Cooking (Arts and Traditions of the Table: Perspectives on Culinary History)
    Author: Hervé This, Jody Gladding
    Publisher: Columbia University Press (October 23, 2007)
    ISBN-13: 978-0231141703

    Title: What Einstein Told His Cook: Kitchen Science Explained
    Author: Robert L. Wolke
    Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company; 1 edition (May 2002)
    ISBN-13: 978-0393011838

    http://blog.khymos.org/
    Texture: A hydrocolloid recipe collection edited by Martin Lersch available for download at http://blog.khymos.org/recipe-collection/

    LTHforum the Chicago based culinary chat site

    Title: Kitchen Chemistry
    Author: Ted Lister, Heston Blumenthal
    Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry; 1 edition (October 3, 2005)
    ISBN-13: 978-0854043897
    The companion website with videos of demonstrations

    Title: Alinea
    Author: Grant Achatz
    Publisher: Achatz; illustrated edition edition (October 1, 2008)
    ISBN-13: 978-1580089289

    Title: The Curious Cook: More Kitchen Science and Lore
    Author: Harold McGee
    Publisher: Wiley (April 20, 1992)
    ISBN-10: 978-0020098010

    http://chadzilla.typepad.com/chadzilla/

    http://www.ideasinfood.typepad.com/

    http://www.pierre-gagnaire.com/francais/cdthis.htm
    (in French – I use http://babelfish.yahoo.com or http://www.google.com/language_tools to translate)

    a few specific old threads on sous vide and alginate in the cooking forum on eGullet (particularly posts by nathanm (Nathan Myhrvold) but otherwise it is not a forum/site I have much familiarity with - if someone can point me to useful threads that would be helpful)

    Title: What Einstein Told His Cook 2: The Sequel: Further Adventures In Kitchen Science
    Author: Robert L. Wolke, Marlene Parrish
    Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company (April 2005)
    ISBN-10: 0393058697
    ASIN: B000OZ28MY

    Title: Molecular Gastronomy: Exploring the Science of Flavor (Arts and Traditions of the Table: Perspectives on Culinary History)
    Author: Hervé This
    Publisher: Columbia University Press (December 9, 2005)
    ISBN-13: 978-0231133128

    Title: Food Chemistry
    Author: H.-D. Belitz, W. Grosch, P. Schieberle
    Publisher: Springer; 3rd revised ed. edition (June 14, 2004)
    ISBN-13: 978-3540408185

    Title: Principles of Food Chemistry
    Author: John M.de Man
    Publisher: Springer; 3rd edition (February 1, 1999)
    ISBN-13: 978-3540408185

    -----

    Additional:

    Good Eats Fan Page

    Title: The science of chocolate
    Author: Stephen T. Beckett
    Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry; 2nd edition (March 6, 2008)
    ISBN-13: 978-0854049707


    Title: The science of ice cream
    Author: Clarke, Chris
    Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry; 1 edition (August 10, 2005)
    ISBN-13: 978-0854046294

    Title: Making Sense of Taste: Food and Philosophy
    Author: Carolyn Korsmeyer
    Publisher: Cornell University Press (October 2002)
    ISBN-13: 978-0801488139

    -----

    What am I missing? What else do I have to read?

    edited to correct glaring and inadvertent omissions
    Last edited by sazerac on July 5th, 2009, 8:18 pm, edited 6 times in total.
  • Post #3 - July 2nd, 2009, 4:45 pm
    Post #3 - July 2nd, 2009, 4:45 pm Post #3 - July 2nd, 2009, 4:45 pm
    The Kitchen Chemistry Sessions

    Random Examples

    Here are two examples of what I mean by using food ingredients and preparations to explain principles of chemistry

    Beating egg whites (adapted from “On food and cooking” by Harold McGee):
    Many recipes call for this and it can be easily demonstrated in minutes. It involves first separating the egg into the yolk (proteins including amylase a starch digesting enzyme which is a different lesson, fats (unsaturated and saturated), cholesterol, etc.) and the white (almost all protein – this most can identify, though nearly 90% water by weight). Beating the egg white results in the energy and collisions being transferred to the protein and breaking the bonds that hold them compact and unfolding them. Beating also introduces air (in the form of tiny bubbles trapped in the protein water matrix) causing a significant air-water interface that orients the unfolded protein parts (hydrophilic and hydrophilic) causing them to form a network trapping the air bubbles in a foam. However, continued beating will collapse the network by squeezing out the water as the unfolded proteins bond to each other (ionic, hydrogen bonding, hydrophobic and disulfide bonds). How to stabilize this foam for soft or stiff peaks? Well, egg proteins like most have sulfur atoms that form the disulfides in coming together. These can be kept apart, say by capping them with a free H+ ion - from tartaric acid (a dibasic acid found in grapes) or cream of tartar (the monopotassium salt of tartaric acid ) or even a little bit of lemon juice or vinegar (which most recognize as acid). Significant scientific terms and concepts can readily be explained through a simple process in minutes. These concepts can also be readily extended in their scientific detail (pKa, strong and weak acids, etc.) and extrapolations to other concepts and ideas. Many may already be familiar with the practice of beating egg whites in a copper bowl (in which case one doesn't require the acid). That is due to the traces of copper that forms very tight bonds with sulfur and achieves the same foam stabilizing effect. In expanding the course, this can provide a good segue opportunity to metal ligand interactions and inorganic chemistry.

    Onion rings & fruit juice “caviar”: Chemistry and biochemistry pervades food preparation, be it at home or outside. Many beginner students may be familiar with onion rings from Burger King, maybe eaten a few.
    Image
    image from http://biggestmenu.com/rdr/CA/Alhambra/ ... s-sm-37336 - this was the first hit in a google image search for "bk onion rings" and I include here simply so you get the picture…
    Conceivably, some may even have wondered how it is that every one of those rings are nearly perfect toroids and equally sized. Cooks and food technologists have been using gelling agents for a long time and among the many polysaccharides (e.g.agar, xantham gum, pectin, gum arabic, carageenan), alginates – composed of β-D-mannuronic and α-L-guluronic acids joined by 1-> 4 linkages - are long chain polymers with carboxylate groups (these have a negative charge; these names and structures will be introduced based on the level of the class – but even in a freshman class, if science students, the structure may be appropriate, if only to prime them for later classes). This algin or the salt form ‘alginate’ is obtained from kelp (it is a major skeletal part of the cell wall). As the sodium (monovalent) salt, it is readily soluble. So onions and blended onions can be used to form a sodium alginate mix (1% - 3%; the viscosity will vary). When divalent ions like Ca2+ are introduced, say by pouring/extruding the alginate-onion mix through a round mold/dye into a CaCl2 bath, each divalent ion can cause the long chain polymer to come together by interacting with two carboxylate groups on the backbone. Thus a gel is formed at the point of contact. The thickness of this gel will depend on how long the mix is left in the bath. This is then breaded and frozen and shipped – ready to fry and eat. Hence the uniform size and consistency of the product (besides more of the onion can be used if blended).
    This sort of gelling demonstration is easily done with fruit juice drops to produce edible fruit juice “caviar”, little spheres that dissolve in the mouth and taste like fruit juice (or whatever the “caviar” is made of). This makes for a very powerful demonstration and hopefully a learning experience.
    For the 09-209 course – if the caviar is made with tonic water (that contains quinine), then exposure to UV light (black light) will make the "caviar" glow.


    (no fancy equipment is really needed - uv flashlights are available for <$15 on amazon or other vendors; I'll make lists of ingredients and equipment and sources available with each session and 'module')


    In discussing food, it is very easy to introduce concepts of science especially chemistry (as described above) and biology (such as genetics, genetically modified foods, etc.) and even interdisciplinary concepts (e.g., the short-lived practice in parts of the beef industry to keep meat in a package with CO that irreversibly binds the myoglobin, keeping it red) [more on this in the approporate 'session']. I plan on ending the course by asking students for some of their favorite recipes and engaging them in discussion about how the science works and whether the recipe/protocol can be improved.
  • Post #4 - July 2nd, 2009, 4:47 pm
    Post #4 - July 2nd, 2009, 4:47 pm Post #4 - July 2nd, 2009, 4:47 pm
    The Kitchen Chemistry Sessions: Tentative topics and order

    Below is what I have planned for the various classes/sessions
    The first one is in somewhat greater detail so give a better idea of what I plan to do and how I am thinking of going about it.
    This is for the class for non-science majors (and freshmen students) - 09-109. For the 09-209 class I aim to keep to this basic structure with greater detail in the scientific explanations. As this class will be held later (2nd half of the semester) I can adjust the content following the initial 09-109 run.

    «««»»»

    The basic molecules of food are water, fats/oils, proteins and carbohydrates. Others are flavor molecules, minerals and salts – these can typically be divided into water soluble or fat soluble.

    (The writeup below is of course partial and unrefined meant merely to suggest the proposed content, so please pardon the rudimentary and sometimes disjointed writing. Several other pressing matters have distracted my attempt to post and now I'm trying to expedite my post at the expense of polish)

    Session 1: Water, microwaves, and egg whites


    This session will start with a quick primer on how to read the periodic table (for the basic useful information) – electronegativity (the ability to pull electrons) increases up and to the right in the table.
    A quick primer on what holds atoms together to form bigger ‘molecules’ - bonds. Among these the covalent bond is simply two electrons shared between two atoms. If both atoms are the same (say in H2 – hydrogen gas or Cl2, chlorine gas) then the two shared electrons between the atoms are shared equally. If the two atoms are different then the electrons in the bond between the two atoms will be slightly closer to the atom that is more electronegative. So in HCl (hydrochloric acid) the two electrons between H and Cl are pulled slightly closer to Cl. This makes the molecule polarized – so one end of the molecule is slightly more ‘negative’ (because the electrons are shifted to that side) and the other end slightly more ‘positive’ – [think of a magnet (this can be demo-ed) in which the two ends of a bar are differently polarized].
    Now water or H2O has two bonds – one between each H and the O that they are attached to. In each of these bonds the electrons are closer to the more electronegative O. Now the molecule of H2O has the atoms arranged like they are at the corners of a triangle. So overall the molecule is polar - with the corner that has the O slightly more negatively charged than the opposite side of the ‘triangle’.
    When you put a lot of polar molecules together they would tend to line up or align themselves [think/observe magnets again]. (In addition I would mention H-bonding).
    Heat is a form of energy - so in hotter water one can think of all these molecules all tumbling around, like children dosed with lots of sugar. When the water is cold then the molecules aren’t moving around as much and when frozen the water molecules are all aligned and then just held in place.
    This is all very fine (and my apologies for this long writeup – in the class I would be speaking and drawing and this wouldn’t take very long to explain. If you are still reading this I do appreciate your patience) – but how about we actually observe this whole ‘bonding’ and polarity business?

    First a few words about how microwaves work*. Probably most know that a microwave is used to heat things. Now heat is a form of energy. Microwaves are a type of radiation [a quick primer on the electromagnetic spectrum that includes radiation (and how food is irradiated for sterilization) could be done here – this could lead to questions and students to reflect on whether irradiated food would be radioactive and related issues)
    Microwaves work by oscillating polar molecules and this oscillation is at a very high frequency (2.5 billion cycles/second or 2.5 gigaHz).

    A lightbulb can act as an antenna for microwaves.
    Experiment (adapted from The Science of Cooking by Peter Barham
    A light bulb (try the highest wattage incandescent bulb available) in a microwave (as low a wattage possible) will glow where it picks up the microwaves. do not do this for more than a few seconds! - definitely not more than 10 seconds at a time. If the bulb is on a turntable one can observe spots where the microwaves are more concentrated - the filament will glow brighter. Also putting the microwave on a lower power setting doesn't mean that there are lower power microwaves (the bulb will glow just as bright), just that the microwaves are on for less time. [I got the idea to include this 'experiment' from this LTHpost by seebee]
    I realize the description etc. over here is getting rather dry and tedious – which is why the course is to be a lecture-demonstration (and lab) course.
    A quick test demonstration of the lightbulb in microwave is here

    (yes, I will do it with a clear bulb so the filament is visible – the frosty bulb films slightly better)
    If the link above does not work for you – it is available on youtube as well [size=75]edit - video now embedded
    Like everything else, there are many others like my video on youtube. See for example this one [/size]


    So how can we use microwaves to 'observe' polarity?
    In a glass of liquid water, the polar water molecules are subjected to high frequency oscillations and the molecules are bumping around and the energy is converted to heat (most foods contain water mostly and that’s the main reason they get heated). In a block of ice however, the water molecules are all aligned and held together in the ice crystal lattice and microwaves have little effect on these water molecules that they can't oscillate.
    Hence an experiment: boiling water in ice.
    Equipment: Ice cup, microwave
    (molds are available – ike this one 4 for $7.99+s&h or DIY

    It helps if the ice cup is in the freezer or kept extra cold (I keep it with some dry ice), as also a sleeve (such as a small paper cup) inserted into the ice cup into which the water is poured. The water will boil in the microwave (pour out immediately and check temp.) but the ice will not melt from the microwaves (only from the contact with the hot water)

    This experiment is also suggested in Blumenthal's Kitchen Chemistry

    Moving on to egg whites. Egg whites are mostly water (nearly 90%) and protein. Proteins are long stands of amino-acids linked together. These amino acids are, like most molecules, either hydrophobic (water-hating) or hydrophilic (water-loving). Whipping egg whites – a quick explanation for this is [url]posted above[/url](based on Harold McGee's, "On food and cooking".)
    The demonstration will be with egg whites in a copper bowl (Cu – yes, that's in the periodic table) or with lemon juice or other acid (cream or tartar).
    (equipment/ingredients): copper bowl [amazon link: $34.95], whisk(s), egg whites, lemon juice, vinegar, cream of tartar.

    Final edible experiment(s)- ideally each group (of 3) will do their own experiment/recipe and we'll get together at the end to taste them all.

    Vaquelin

    Egg white whipped with added 'flavored' water (and use dried egg whites and reconstitute with 'flavored' water) will produce a foam. This foam cooked in a microwave will form a flavorful jellified foam. The dish is named Vaquelin after Nicolas Vauquelin (1763–1829), one of Antoine Lavoisier’s teachers.
    Reference: Hervé This, EMBO reports 7, 11, 1062–1066 (2006)
    doi:10.1038/sj.embor.7400850
    accessible online here (subscription may be required)

    Recipes for Vaquelin foams are available on Pierre Gaignaire's website
    http://www.pierre-gagnaire.com/francais/cdthis.htm
    search for Le Vauquelin
    Three recipes are available
    http://www.pierre-gagnaire.com/francais ... quelin.htm
    For English translation via bablefish use this link


    Tastings

    End of Session
    Last edited by sazerac on October 3rd, 2009, 10:11 pm, edited 1 time in total.
  • Post #5 - July 2nd, 2009, 4:51 pm
    Post #5 - July 2nd, 2009, 4:51 pm Post #5 - July 2nd, 2009, 4:51 pm
    Sessions 2 - 7

    The remaining sessions I'm just going to put down a just the topic and a few sentences - this is already way too long a post. The specific experiments, references, etc. I'll update later. For now is simply to give an idea of what is being covered or currently planned. If you have specific questions/suggestions about any of these, please let me know.

    Session 2: Hydrophobicity – fats and oils [hydrogenation]; emulsions – milk, butter
    Discussion of cis and trans-, saturated and unsaturated fats and oils, detergents and emulsifiers. Toss the cream around and make butter.
    [lab: Chantilly – chocolate "mousse" made just by whipping chocolate (usually contains the emulsifier lecithin) that is melted into hot water (flavored or not)]
    Inspired by Heston Blumenthal – see this youtube video
    In lab there will be other Chantilly made – butter + flavored liquid (say tomato water) and emulsified into a 'mousse'. See for example le buerre chantilly on Pierre Gagnaire's website – here's the English translation of 'Tomato Butter Chantilly'


    Session 3: concepts of pH, weights and measures, metal ions [alginate spherification – "caviar" "noodles" (bk onion rings)
    "Caviar" explanation appears earlier. I think the alginate spherification and reverse spherification is well known to followers of food.
    fluorescent caviar using tonic water (that contains quinine)
    Image
    Resource for "molecular gastronomy" (or molecular cooking) products:
    http://www.le-sanctuaire.com/
    (food grade calcium chloride though is much cheaper at your local home brew supply store)
    Reference : Texture: hydrocolloid recipe collection edited by Martin Lersch (http://blog.khymos.org/recipe-collection/)

    For 209: we'll also make chitosan-alginate gel – this has implications in controlled drug delivery

    Session 4: Heat, denaturation, protein structure – meat vs. fish (why does fish protein cook at higher temp)– sous-vide cooking,
    The color of mat comes form myoglobin (that helps oxygenate the cells). Muscles that need to work a lot have more myoglobin (hence breast meat is white and legs dark). When myoglobin binds other molecules (and depending on the oxidation state of the heme) the color is different – pink when nitric oxide (NO) via nitrites is bound to heme [hot dogs}, pink ring in BBQ (NO and/or CO). If the color is due to atoms other than O bound to the iron (heme) then sulfur can be bound instead. For example sulfur that is there in some proteins – like in eggs remember? One protein side chain that contains sulfur is called cysteine. Here is a pic of sulfur (from cysteine) binding to the myoglobin heme and turning it green (in 10 mins).
    Image Image

    Enzyme action [transglutaminase ('meat glue')] – meat is protein this is rapidly and unforgettably demonstrated by gluing different meats together.
    Inspired by this example among others in ideas in food and meatglue on chadzilla
    Image
    image with kind permission from chadzilla.typepad.com
    Image
    Turducken terrine image with kind permission from ideasinfood (HAT)


    Session 5: Functional groups – receptors, taste, (Carbohydrates – sweetners)
    They Go Really Well Together [TGRWT]; double-blind studies; color taste/odor testing puree
    We'll talk about the theory behind taste – how receptors (most of these are proteins) can interact with small molecules.
    Students will learn how double blind studies are done. We'll taste a lot if things
    Inspired by Khymos TGRWT

    Session 6: miracle berry; (double-blind studies – taste test). Miracle berries alter taste due to the presence of the protein miraculin. In class we will discuss agonists and antagonists. Drug-receptor binding; capsaicin acts on receptors that are dual pain and thermal receptors (which is why capsaicin is used in pain therapy) ; biological signal transduction – Ca++ signaling.

    Session 7: Final assessment – (developed/adapted) recipe comparison and taste-off [peer review?]
    I'm hoping that students will use what they have learned to improve recipes
    Banana bread anyone?

    Undecided possibilities

    Ice-cream (ice-crystallization) made with liquid nitrogen cooling. The point of using ice-salt mixture is to have rapid cooling (ice-salt is colder than just ice). To take this further, we can have super fast cooling with liquid nitrogen. This looks pretty spectacular and I have easy access to liquid nitrogen (and dry ice for that matter). I'm not certain how much of a science lesson is there.

    It would be nice to make coffee by different methods – I thought of this after reading the "Investigator of SouthSide Culinary Oddities" ReneG's post on the Blue Bottle Café. Although extraction is/was a significant method in chemistry I'm not certain there's that much of a lesson (especially if I have to spend $ on the coffee maker)
    Last edited by sazerac on July 8th, 2009, 7:37 am, edited 3 times in total.
  • Post #6 - July 2nd, 2009, 9:15 pm
    Post #6 - July 2nd, 2009, 9:15 pm Post #6 - July 2nd, 2009, 9:15 pm
    Das, I got chills reading these posts. I feel I speak for many of us when I say, Bravo.
    “Nobody exists on purpose. Nobody belongs anywhere. Everybody’s gonna die. Come watch TV?”
  • Post #7 - July 3rd, 2009, 7:46 am
    Post #7 - July 3rd, 2009, 7:46 am Post #7 - July 3rd, 2009, 7:46 am
    Ditto! I'll have more to say once I get a chance to digest the above and think about it a bit. But my overwhelming thought at the moment is: "Damn, I wish I could get to Pittsburgh to take this class!"
    Gypsy Boy

    "I am not a glutton--I am an explorer of food." (Erma Bombeck)
  • Post #8 - July 3rd, 2009, 7:50 am
    Post #8 - July 3rd, 2009, 7:50 am Post #8 - July 3rd, 2009, 7:50 am
    David Hammond wrote:Das, I got chills reading these posts. I feel I speak for many of us when I say, Bravo.


    Thank you for the kind comment - I can use all the encouragement I can get.
    I didn't include in the details for session 6 where I plan to do taste tests with miracle berries (rather the tablets*) - that if I could get my hands on some Szechuan bud ("Sechuan button") it could be very interesting. I first learnt about Szechuan bud (the analgesic ingredient that is 'shocking' is spilanthol**) from Jazzfood's post here and from your post thought kids may find it interesting... :D I have learnt much from and been inspired by LTHforum (and your posts).

    Thank you!

    *available here - $14.99

    **references:
    It's Shocking, But You Eat It NPR story
    see also wikipedia entry on Acmella oleracea
    there are many articles on spilanthol that are in my 'to be read' pile that I will tend to if I can get some of the buttons
    Last edited by sazerac on July 3rd, 2009, 9:42 am, edited 1 time in total.
  • Post #9 - July 3rd, 2009, 8:02 am
    Post #9 - July 3rd, 2009, 8:02 am Post #9 - July 3rd, 2009, 8:02 am
    Gypsy Boy wrote:Ditto! I'll have more to say once I get a chance to digest the above and think about it a bit. But my overwhelming thought at the moment is: "Damn, I wish I could get to Pittsburgh to take this class!"


    Gypsy Boy, not that I don't want you in Pittsburgh :) but in time I hope to have everything in place so that you don't have to be. My goal is to create a resource detailing experiments, equipment and ingredients (and their sources).
  • Post #10 - July 3rd, 2009, 8:52 am
    Post #10 - July 3rd, 2009, 8:52 am Post #10 - July 3rd, 2009, 8:52 am
    Das, I'm awe-struck. You're bringing something I've always wanted to see to fruition. The BLT experiment was a tease. :wink: Like GB, I need to sit down with the above and digest it before I'm even able to form sentences. This is awesome.
  • Post #11 - July 3rd, 2009, 9:12 am
    Post #11 - July 3rd, 2009, 9:12 am Post #11 - July 3rd, 2009, 9:12 am
    Mmmm...science-y....

    (must wait forr brain to reach maximum power to begin comprehension but cognition of awesomeness has penetrated fog...)
  • Post #12 - July 3rd, 2009, 9:58 am
    Post #12 - July 3rd, 2009, 9:58 am Post #12 - July 3rd, 2009, 9:58 am
    Mhays wrote:Mmmm...science-y....


    Not just food, but science too can be fun. Think of this as simply seeking the proof in the pudding...
    Sorry couldn't resist that :oops:

    Mhays, it is not in the writeup above, so let me take this opportunity to thank you for your posts and threads especially those that involve Sparky (like this one and this one). As a father of nearly three yr old and seven day old daughters, I am amazed as how much a young mind can soak up. To be brutally honest, I'm doing this for all the kids out there who can hopefully learn before it is made to be a turn off.

    Specifically with respect to the course, your thread on 2 ½ minute from scratch chocolate cake was inspirational. I'm still working on exact recipes (by weight) and where/how to incorporate it in the class (perhaps in session 7?).
  • Post #13 - July 3rd, 2009, 10:12 am
    Post #13 - July 3rd, 2009, 10:12 am Post #13 - July 3rd, 2009, 10:12 am
    Awww...thank you. :oops: We are all big science buffs in the family; it was a lot of fun tweaking the cake recipe - I remember wishing I understood the chemistry better...
  • Post #14 - July 3rd, 2009, 3:16 pm
    Post #14 - July 3rd, 2009, 3:16 pm Post #14 - July 3rd, 2009, 3:16 pm
    Where the hell were you when I was in college, trying desperately to wrap my head around Organic Chemistry II as taught by apathetic professors who seemed to think teach was a nuisance that got in the way of research & getting published, and wouldn't recognize the concept of relating course subject matter to real life if it sat on their face? :P

    Seriously, this is so cool! I wish you all the best, and am fairly certain that these courses will prove to be quite popular.

    In fact, the kids that don't take this class will find themselves at a huge disadvantage in the dating scene...spaghetti & jarred marinara won't cut it with the ladies when guys taking your class are whipping up masterpieces of molecular gastronomy for date-night dinners :lol:

    Also, I caught the bit about the seven-day-old daughter - HUGE Congrats on that!
  • Post #15 - July 3rd, 2009, 5:57 pm
    Post #15 - July 3rd, 2009, 5:57 pm Post #15 - July 3rd, 2009, 5:57 pm
    Good catch, Khaopaat! (I read 7 mos, foggy brain, ya know...) Definitely, congratulations, sazerac!
  • Post #16 - July 3rd, 2009, 9:54 pm
    Post #16 - July 3rd, 2009, 9:54 pm Post #16 - July 3rd, 2009, 9:54 pm
    Stunningly impressive. If the folks at the Food Network had any sense, they'd be filming this. Or maybe it belongs on the National Geographic channel. It's too good for Food Network.
    "All great change in America begins at the dinner table." Ronald Reagan

    http://midwestmaize.wordpress.com
  • Post #17 - July 4th, 2009, 8:33 am
    Post #17 - July 4th, 2009, 8:33 am Post #17 - July 4th, 2009, 8:33 am
    Cynthia wrote:Stunningly impressive. If the folks at the Food Network had any sense, they'd be filming this. Or maybe it belongs on the National Geographic channel. It's too good for Food Network.



    Perhaps it should be on WLTH :shock: After all, there are a number of potential shows already present in various threads, and what better show to anchor the new network than "Welcome to 'Low and Slow' with your host, Gary Wiviott!" (Those of you of a certain age may wish to have the mental picture of Gary Owens as the announcer....)
    Gypsy Boy

    "I am not a glutton--I am an explorer of food." (Erma Bombeck)
  • Post #18 - July 4th, 2009, 8:45 am
    Post #18 - July 4th, 2009, 8:45 am Post #18 - July 4th, 2009, 8:45 am
    sazerac wrote:The Kitchen Chemistry Sessions
    References
    What am I missing? What else do I have to read?

    edited to correct glaring and inadvertent omissions


    OK, having a quiet morning finally and am starting to read through this. Two references, the Shirley Corriher being extremely important, she is a frequent guest on Good Eats, and a biochemist herself:

    Cookwise and Bakewise by Shirley Corriher

    A website I've found, geared more towards kids, but it's fun and on-topic: The Accidental Scientist: Science of Cooking
  • Post #19 - July 5th, 2009, 3:21 pm
    Post #19 - July 5th, 2009, 3:21 pm Post #19 - July 5th, 2009, 3:21 pm
    I appreciate the very kind comments and wishes.
    Khaopaat - Organic II is a hard class although a little context can be sprinkled here and there (I co-taught it last semester). Beyond that I can't comment in public (but you can vent more if we sit down over a beer or two. You buy :) .)

    Mhays, thanks for the interest that gets you looking up stuff in the morning.
    I didn't mean to omit Corriher's books - they do belong in a list of science and food references.
    Right now there are no prescribed textbooks for the course I am teaching but I simply include McGee and Barham as two useful references. Mainly this is for the science angle. Corriher's Cookwise [amazon link] I felt was a bit more food/recipe centric (and then explained the science); as opposed to McGee which IMO is more science-centric. Bakewise [amazon link], I flipped through and have heard great things about. but for now baking is outside the purview of my class as it would take too long (concepts as well as in a practical sense to do things in a class) and I'm trying to keep equipment simple and portable (and avoiding ovens). I did toy with the idea of using a roaster oven and doing the no knead bread, but didn't think there were much teachable moments/content in the framework of my class.

    I have seen the Science of Cooking website. It is in my bookmarks and a great site. I didn't respond earlier because my other saved bookmarks are on my work computer. Here are some other websites that are of interest:

    Home Chemistry - blog
    My last bite - blog - adventures in molecular cooking - this mostly is about alignates and caviar.

    There are also a few other books like
    Food Chemistry a lab manual by Dennis Miller
    that are more geared to food science/technology students and the content covers mostly non-edible experiments.
    Not that all experiments I plan are edible. We will hydrogenate olive oil to make olive fat in class (difference between fat and oil is simply one of nomenclature - nominally oil is liquid and fat is solid at room temp).

    Here's another very useful website (I would have included these in the appropriate 'session' and will again, but since I'm posting now let's see if I can sustain people's interest in clicking on this thread)

    FOODPAIRING
  • Post #20 - July 5th, 2009, 3:38 pm
    Post #20 - July 5th, 2009, 3:38 pm Post #20 - July 5th, 2009, 3:38 pm
    Astounding Das! Good science *and* good eats! Who said it couldn't be done?

    I'm going to clue a couple of foodie colleagues at Pitt to take a look at this. They'll love it, and might even have an idea or two to share with you.

    Really, really well done!

    Geo
    Sooo, you like wine and are looking for something good to read? Maybe *this* will do the trick! :)
  • Post #21 - July 5th, 2009, 8:21 pm
    Post #21 - July 5th, 2009, 8:21 pm Post #21 - July 5th, 2009, 8:21 pm
    I've updated the references (and will continue to do so), but just wanted to add that I just see that Hestons Blumenthal and Ted Lister's "Kitchen Chemistry" has a companion website that includes all the videos from the CD that accompanies the book.
    Kitchen Chemistry
  • Post #22 - July 20th, 2009, 8:52 pm
    Post #22 - July 20th, 2009, 8:52 pm Post #22 - July 20th, 2009, 8:52 pm
    sazerac, I've been thinking about your course over the last several weeks. As a cook, most things in the kitchen aren't really mysterious to me: I understand, for instance, what happens when you thicken a sauce, how yeast and chemical leaveners work, how fat and frying work.

    What is mystifying is sugar: specifically, as pertains to candymaking. I made a hot fudge sauce the other day, and played a bit fast and loose with the ingredients, but amazingly, magically, it worked. How is it that you can take a cocoa powder, butter and chocolate - mostly fat - and mix it in hot water, resulting in cocoa soup with lumpy bits - but when you add sugar, it turns into a creamy, rubbery, delicious sauce? You can't do this with regular chocolate, it will sieze. I'd love to understand this chemistry better, it really seems magical to me - fondants, nougats, making hard things plastic and adding a crust to custard, sugar is amazing.
  • Post #23 - July 20th, 2009, 9:04 pm
    Post #23 - July 20th, 2009, 9:04 pm Post #23 - July 20th, 2009, 9:04 pm
    Yeah, Mhays, sugar is mysterious... It's a plastic, obviously, but what kind of plastic it is depends upon how you treat it. TODG understands her sugar technology: "Debbie, nothing's happening" I'll say. She'll take one quick glance and say "Keep stirring." Which I do. And which then produces the desired result, magically.

    Das, tell us what's going on!!

    Geo
    Sooo, you like wine and are looking for something good to read? Maybe *this* will do the trick! :)
  • Post #24 - July 21st, 2009, 6:01 am
    Post #24 - July 21st, 2009, 6:01 am Post #24 - July 21st, 2009, 6:01 am
    I am overlate in returning to offer my paltry two cents.

    I have tried to find useful things to say, critiques to offer, suggestions to make. The fact is that I can't. While I might suggest other lessons or different topics, the fact is that so much thought has clearly gone into the planning of this course that I find it well-night irreproachable, Das. Truly.

    I don't imagine that everyone would choose exactly the same lessons that you've chosen but that hardly detracts from their value or attractiveness. This material is so fascinating that it accomplishes part of your work for you. Together with your enthusiasm and your abilities, I haven't the least doubt that students will be battling to get into this course. Indeed, this strikes me as the inception of one of those famous courses that, fifty years hence, on the eve of your retirement, all the speeches in honor of your career will take note of this course, the one that was always a perennial favorite for students throughout the university, the one every professor alive would love to teach. I'm jealous. I'm impressed. I'd love to be back in school (well, okay, maybe not for the exam...)

    Dave
    Gypsy Boy

    "I am not a glutton--I am an explorer of food." (Erma Bombeck)
  • Post #25 - July 21st, 2009, 11:10 am
    Post #25 - July 21st, 2009, 11:10 am Post #25 - July 21st, 2009, 11:10 am
    This sounds like a fantastic course. Clearly, there is more than enough material to fill many semesters, but I have a few suggestions that could fit in with your preliminary framework:

    It seems natural to include a discussion of boiling point elevation and freezing point depression in the session about water.

    I would suggest talking about ceviche and acid-cooking in the session about protein structure (ie, proteins can be denature in many ways). You could use this discussion to debunk some myths in the raw food movement. [Full disclosure: this is a bit of a personal crusade. I'm sure there are valid reasons to prefer a raw diet, but preserving enzymes by avoiding cooked food is not one of the them. The pH and the proteases in our stomachs do a pretty good job of destroying enzymes.]

    In Session 6, together with the discussion of capsaicin/heat receptors, you can also discuss that the menthol receptor responds to cold.

    Good luck with the course. I'm excited to hear how it goes over with the students.
  • Post #26 - July 25th, 2009, 10:08 am
    Post #26 - July 25th, 2009, 10:08 am Post #26 - July 25th, 2009, 10:08 am
    Mhays wrote:What is mystifying is sugar: specifically, as pertains to candymaking. I made a hot fudge sauce the other day, and played a bit fast and loose with the ingredients, but amazingly, magically, it worked. How is it that you can take a cocoa powder, butter and chocolate - mostly fat - and mix it in hot water, resulting in cocoa soup with lumpy bits - but when you add sugar, it turns into a creamy, rubbery, delicious sauce? You can't do this with regular chocolate, it will sieze. I'd love to understand this chemistry better, it really seems magical to me - fondants, nougats, making hard things plastic and adding a crust to custard, sugar is amazing.


    Mhays, thanks for thinking about this and more for making me do so :)
    I can't profess an understanding of the magic of sugar. Still, for what you describe if I understand right - the cocoa powder lumping is simply a physical phenomenon. The dissolved sugar adds viscosity*. In this case sugar is sucrose rather than a long chain starch (though one can add a bit of that for thickening) I'm not sure what you mean when you say you can't do this with regular chocolate and that it will seize. The closest explanation, if I understood you correctly and if applicable (and I'm paraphrasing from memory from either a This, McGee or Wolke book, likely the first), is to consider what happens if you put a wet spoon into sugar - you get clumps (likewise the chocolate 'seizes' with a little water). However, if you have a lot of water the sugar will dissolve and you get a solution. In the case of chocolate (and cocoa butter), it will form a separate layer from water but emulsifiers can aid the 'mixing' to form an emulsion.
    I have stopped making chocolate 'mousse' any other way since I learnt about Chantilly (a protocol developed by This). I have a bunch of pictures detailing the process, but essentially chop finely (to aid melting) - 8 oz. of chocolate (I use TJ's 65%), add 200 ml (pardon the mixed units) very hot water (or flavored water, say with a touch of coffee, or hazelnut syrup (torino)). Mix till all chocolate has melted, pour into a cold bowl (over ice), whip in air and in 8 minutes later chocolate 'mousse'. See this video by heston blumenthal. In class we will do this as well as make tomato water - with butter chantilly (based on recipe by Gagnaire) [ see session2 above]


    *Rheological properties of sucrose solutions (via Googlebooks)

    Gypsy boy, I appreciate the kind words. I don't know that I have given it that much thought yet - under the current system my initial 'success' (whatever that is) will be judged mainly on my research which is quite different. Still, I am fortunate to be in an environment that values educational efforts (even at this stage of my career). I cannot say how this course will play out. Certainly I hope that it is meaningful as an educational tool, whether I or others implement it to fullest potential. That's among the reasons I posted about it here - to put it in the public domain.

    BJY - thanks very much for the suggestions. The bp elevation and depression I thought may be too basic, but probably I will include it if in passing. The freezing pt. depression especially is relevant/used in the freezing mixtures in ice-cream making and that's why we use it (to get ice-cream to freeze faster to keep the ice-crystals within ice cream smaller).

    The menthol receptor is a great idea. I'll look for references (if you knwo of any please let me know). For the capsaicin and thermal receptors I was going to bring up this article (thanks ReneG for reminding me about it!): The capsaicin receptor: a heat-activated ion channel in the pain pathway Pubmed link
    I had thought of ceviche, but hadn't decided whether to do/serve it in class. (we would do sous vide scallops in protein structures and denaturation - so acid denaturation seems logical and in keeping with pH concepts covered in other sessions. It may be interesting to measure the pH of a ceviche preparation/recipe). I didn't know one of the raw food 'reasons' was to 'preserve' enzymes - as you say, that's plain silly. Stomach pH is around 2 (I think) and ceviche preparation pH is...
  • Post #27 - July 26th, 2009, 2:37 pm
    Post #27 - July 26th, 2009, 2:37 pm Post #27 - July 26th, 2009, 2:37 pm
    Here is a reference describing the menthol receptor. I am sure there have been many follow-up studies since the original cloning of the receptor. [I have a PhD in Biochemistry. For the first half of grad school, my lab was next door to the Julius Lab, which has done a lot of work on these temperature-sensitive ion channels.]

    Another flaw in the "preserving enzymes" theory is that a lot of raw food involves extreme processing, including grinding nuts, blending, etc. Many of these processing steps undoubtedly mechanically denature the enzymes that raw foodists are so eager to preserve. [Don't get me started on this topic...]
  • Post #28 - November 20th, 2009, 8:45 am
    Post #28 - November 20th, 2009, 8:45 am Post #28 - November 20th, 2009, 8:45 am
    I stumbled onto this recently, and it made me wonder how this class is going?
  • Post #29 - November 22nd, 2009, 9:23 pm
    Post #29 - November 22nd, 2009, 9:23 pm Post #29 - November 22nd, 2009, 9:23 pm
    Mhays wrote:I stumbled onto this recently, and it made me wonder how this class is going?


    The class is going great. There were some early logistic issues, but I think I'm getting the hang of it. We finished the course once - mini-1 which was with freshmen and non-science majors. Now, in the second half of the semester in mini-2 we have a couple more sessions to go. I do intend to post details and pictures.

    As far as the spherification and 'reverse or inverse spherification' goes we did both in class (part of the carbohydrate session). I don't have the pics here but will include some later. I'll note here that the first time around the class did not go so well (from my perspective). I though that the students would be able to make the solutions - alginate and calcium bath and do the 'caviar', spherification etc. in class. Nothing worked - mainly because there was too much air trapped in the solutions after blending the alginate (even after few degassing attempts in a foodsaver vacuum canister) [in your link, you'll see all the air bubbles in the puree]. So for the next class - I called redo, premade all solutions (there were five groups so they all got different juices or soup) and we were able to do the spherification (and inverse) as well as other hydrocolloid 'experiments' with other gums and starches.
    In the second mini, of course I had learnt from the first pass and premade multiple solutions. We had lychee juice with alginate with which we made 'caviar'. We also had mango juice with added calcium (for inverse spherification in an alginate solution/bath - the alginate of course is what forms the membrane to encapsulate the mango; pictured here). So for fun I was able to have one group of students try the mango inverse spherification in the lychee-alginate solution - to get a 'membrane' of lychee surrounding the liquid mango sphere. You start with a slight lychee taste as you put it in your mouth, then the burst of mango juice and then the chewy lychee membrane again (though the lychee was overwhelmed by the mango). For something like this the (lychee) bath needs more alginate (%).
    Another interesting food (mini-2) was making mushroom stock 'caviar' and serving that with ramen. I learned in mini-1 from one of the student's assignment submission that Nissin Top Ramen lists as an ingredient... you guessed it - alginate!

    It's been a lot of fun - and I've learned a lot and been amazed at how much the students were able to digest and absorb. Based on the alginate class - freshmen and non-science majors were all correctly able to identify looking at a particular molecular structure that the molecule was a carbohydrate and that it had a carboxylic acid functional group which would aggregate in the presence of calcium. (more on this later)
    I will update this thread more formally later.

    Thanks for thinking about this thread and course.
  • Post #30 - September 1st, 2010, 6:08 am
    Post #30 - September 1st, 2010, 6:08 am Post #30 - September 1st, 2010, 6:08 am
    Fall 2010 has started and I'm once again teaching The Kitchen Chemistry Sessions. Originally I wasn't sure I would offer it this year but based on last years response and given the momentum I thought it would be good to have it.
    Between all the other goings on, I haven't been able to update this page (among others). I'll attempt to rectify that at least a little.

    I presented briefly about my course at the American Chemical Society meeting in Spring and also this Summer at the BCCE – both at food and chemistry symposia. It seems there is a growth in food related content and courses (that relate to Chemistry).
    Two of the issues that educators face are space – traditional classroom spaces are not particularly suitable - and content, how much and what to include. I like to think that the latter I have managed to navigate through; the issue of space is still not ideal. Last year the first course (09-109 – for first years and non-science majors) was in a room in which we only had a small cup sink. For the second half of the semester – mini-2 (09-209 for students who've already taken organic chemistry) was in a conference room that has a small kitchenette are behind and importantly a large 3-compartment sink. This is still somewhat non-ideal as we have to go back and forth between the lecture and activities parts, but the large sink is great. Still, I am looking to improve this aspect.

    In developing and piloting the course last year, I am grateful for free samples from National Starch, TIC gums, Ajinomoto co. and also helpful discussions and advice from William Ackerman. The Eberly Center for Teaching Excellence at CMU was very supportive and aided in the framing of the syllabus and course. I am also grateful for a a Wimmer Foundation Faculty Fellowship that went towards equipment and supplies for the course.

    In teaching it this year, I have the experiences of last year but still I am trying to do things with new or different ingredients (not all, I do want to make sure some things work :) )
    In the posts below are some of the activities from the different Sessions from Fall 2009,

    Course Goals:
    Upon completion of this course, students should be able to:
    • Identify the key chemical features and characteristics of basic food ingredients and explain how these properties affect and determine their handling, use, and taste
    • Analyze and compare ingredients, recipes and protocols and be able to predict the purpose of and test the effectiveness of ingredients in recipes and dishes
    • Use scientific principles to produce dishes using novel techniques and explain how they were constructed
    • Exemplify the scientific process and inquiry driven research by designing, implementing, and documenting experiments (edible or otherwise)
    • Work effectively in a laboratory groups

    The posts below include some information and pictures of the activities/experiments and food creations of the students in the various sessions – including the final where the students had to create their own 'dishes' based on some guidelines.
    Last edited by sazerac on September 1st, 2010, 6:19 am, edited 1 time in total.

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